concentrates iron, chrome, zinc -10,3 % (7,9 %); products of inorganic
chemistry junction, inorganic and organic precious and rarely of metals of
radioactive elements and isotopes 13 % (13,5 %): an oxide and hydracids of
aluminum - 90 % of all outbound delivering; ferrous metals - 8,2 % (6,3 %).
In import from Russian Federation predominate: mineral products,
machines and equipment.
In 2001 basic paper of import was: purchase of mineral fuel, oil and
petroleum - 21,4 % (more than 77 % from common import of fuel, from them
coke, diesel fuel, lubricant oils, electric power;the machines and
equipment - 16,3 %, metallurgical production -14,5 %, vehicles -13 %,
production chemical and industries, coupled to it,-12 %, plastic and work
piece from it -4 % were imported.
On October 1 2001 in Republic of Kazakhstan 740 share and foreign
enterprises created with participation of Russia (including 466 share and
274 foreign enterprises) with the authorized capital - 22,7 billion tenge
operated. The share of the foreign founder in the authorized capital has
made 1,3 billion tenge, or 5,94 %. From them 121 enterprises manufactured
production, 72 - realized deliverings on export, 182 - had import receipts
and 456 realized delivering on a home market. In 2000 in republic 461
enterprises, in 1999 - 325 operated.
The enterprises created together with the Russian partners, realize
the following aspects of activity: production of crude oil, mounting of the
process equipment, construction of civil engineering buildings, manufacture
of the electric power both electro distributive and monitoring equipment,
pharmaceutical products, copper, woolen and synthetic fabrics, flour,
processing and conservator of production, rendering of different aspects of
services and researches, maintenance and repair of automobiles, activity in
the field of a wireless and television.
2.1 Some aspects of economic interaction Kazakhstan and Russia
For adjustment and intensive development of mutually advantageous two-
sided ratios within the framework of CIS Republic of Kazakhstan and Russian
Federation have necessary objective premises. Russia and Kazakhstan make a
basis of huge Eurasian region, in which historically there were steady
geopolitical, economic, ethnic and cultural links of two countries and
peoples. In many vital spheres the national interests of two countries are
close or coincide, both countries hold on to course on saving of common
defensive, humanitarian and information space and the stability and
prosperity of two countries, further democratic of a society and success of
market transformations are equally interested in hardening safety.
The interaction of Kazakhstan with Russia is a priority in external
policy, external economic and military-strategic course of republic. A
complex of the reasons conditions and factors having not tactical, but
basic essence and long-time character stipulates it.
Today common balance of mutual relation between Kazakhstan and Russia
has positive character, as consider each other as the strategic partners
and it establishes the important premise for their mutual cooperating in
the field of policy, economy, science, engineering and other spheres.
Kazakhstan-Russian economic partnership belongs to the most advanced
regions of two-sided ratios between two states, as for this purpose both
countries have premises for rapprochement. It in many respects defines
character, both mutual relation, and other economic links, folding in the
European direction, of Kazakhstan.
On today there are favorable and unfavorable factors inherent in
Kazakhstan on a path to economic cooperating to Russia.
Alongside with the favorable factors of a development of two-sided economic
ratioes exist as well unfavorable or constraining moment. The overcoming of
economic barriers by means of restoring cooperation links will allow
introducing the operations in frameworks EAEU (Euro-Asian Economic Union).
2.2 The factors of economic interaction of Kazakhstan and Russia
a) Presence in Kazakhstan of large mineral operational lives.
b) Transit potential and favorable geopolitical position of Kazakhstan at
the center of the Eurasian continent: on a crossroads of trade and
transport paths from Europe in Asia: through China on Far East ports,
Pacific Ocean of the state; through Iran and Turkey in the Mediterranean
c) Determination of Kazakhstan and Russia as basic trade partners on export
d) Retention of Kazakhstan in the majority large international
architectures UN, Architecture of Economic Cooperating, Economic union
Central Asian of the countries (together with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan)
and Central-Asian Bank of Cooperating and Development (CABCD); Great five
Republic of Kazakhstan in frameworks of CIS (Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus,
e) The large region with the common boundary (more than 6.000 kms) with
Russia, that has for two countries a serious value in matter of hardening
of their national and collective safety.
f) The residing in republic of the large ethnic interlayer of the European
origin (Russian, Ukraine, Germany) is one of the factors of rapprochement
of Kazakhstan with the European civilization and culture.
a) A close arrangement of Kazakhstan to the inconsistent states Central
Asian of region.
b) Support by Kazakhstan of multifactor policy in a ratio of transportation
of the Caspian oil.
c) The boundaries Central Asian of the states from a point of view of
international law properly not democratic of Republic of Kazakhstan;
Kazakhstan has appeared as a matter of fact cut off from Western Europe
d) Increase of ecological crisis, that weakens its positions in region and
world, narrows down opportunities of fast industrial growth.
e) Absence in Kazakhstan of a direct exit to World Ocean, exterior warm
seas, that hampers links with the largest centers of a modern civilization.
f) Support by the countries of trade wars (introduction of limitation on
import of the goods, policy of an ascertaining dumping in relation to the
exported goods, raw interdependence of the countries etc.).
In the beginning 1990s. It seemed, that the revived democratic states
within the framework of their new statuses would be and further dynamically
to explicate the ratios, filling their contents, adequate to a new
position. However it has not taken place and in basic for past years of two-
way communications were characterized defined inertia.
As displays the analysis, the policy of Russia in a ratio of the
states of Commonwealth for flowing out five years did not differ by a
There was a natural process of comprehension of key national-state
interests attended by searching for new, as it seemed, more perspective
Certainly, the today's level of economic integration does not answer
necessities national economic of Republic of Kazakhstan and Russian
Federation. Available on it is necessary to evaluate the today facts of
economic interaction between two countries as insufficient and requiring in
serious adjusting. The priority of a development of the Kazakhstan-Russian
economic links is possible to support with existing numerous perspective
directions of a development, it:
. Trade-economic cooperating of Republic of Kazakhstan and Russian
. Frontier cooperating Republic Of Kazakhstan and Russian Federation;
. Development of industrial-cooperation links in machine-building and
chemical complexes, by means of creation of share financial and
. Cooperating and development fuel and energy of complexes of Russia and
. Cooperating in sphere of transport;
. Cooperating of Kazakhstan and Russia in mastering vehicle launching of
. Cooperating in mastering natural riches of the Caspian sea;
. Scientific - technological cooperating;
. Cooperating in the market of agricultural production.
The historically folded trade ratios of the countries of the Eurasian
region, including Russia and Kazakhstan from times “Silk road” - allow to
hope for success in a development of economic cooperating in modern
At the same time it is necessary to mark the common tendencies,
natural for the new independent countries. The orientation to the market of
long-distance foreign countries makes production of raw in branches of the
countries rarely for them raw refined in branches, as last valid by