marked the beginning of the third stage in the development of Kazakhstani-
Russian relations - that of expanding and deepening integration between
Kazakhstan and Russia.
This division of the time frame of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian
relations into periods shows that one of the goals of the present work is
to demonstrate continuous development between Kazakhstan and Russia in the
As the period of political history analyzed here is extremely close to
the present, it cannot be regarded as worked out in detail in Russian and
foreign scientific literature. However, the problems of development of the
new statehood of post-Soviet countries of Kazakhstan in this case, of the
birth and evolution of interstate relations, of their entry into the
international community, are being studied ever more actively.
The crucial period of the disintegration of the USSR and the emergence
on the map of the world of new, independent states was primarily reflected
in scientific periodicals. Special mention should be made of the collective
work The New Treaty of Union: The Search for Solutions.
Problems of mutual relations between newly independent states have also
become the subjects of attention of Russian experts and political
scientists. The period of disintegration of the USSR and of the development
of Kazakhstan as a sovereign independent state are at present actively
studied by Kazakhstan scientists. Works have been written on the problem of
the emergence of the new statehood, development of the system of separation
of powers, democratization of society, evolution of party structures and
institutions of democracy, and the construction of a new legal and judicial
system. Present State and Works on the subject of bilateral Kazakhstani-
Russian relations from the moment the two states achieved independence can
be divided into several groups. The first and the most numerous one deal
with relations between Kazakhstan and Russia within the framework of the
Commonwealth of Independent States.
In recent years the development of market relations has considerably
boosted interest for economic and trade cooperation between the two
independent states. Mention must be made of a joint work by the staff of
the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies under the title Kazakhstan:
Realities and Perspectives of Independent Development, It should be noted,
though, that this work suffers from an obviously incomplete documentary and
factual basis and a certain superficiality in the analysis of the problem.
The study is based on such sources as legal acts and interstate
Kazakhstani-Russian treaties, agreements, declarations, joint protocols,
and other documents and materials, as well as decrees, decisions, and
resolutions of the organs of state power in Kazakhstan and Russia.
Extremely important sources for the study of the last five years in
the history of Kazakhstan and of Kazakhstani-Russian relations are the
works of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan: Without the Right or
the Left, The Strategy of the Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as a
Sovereign State, The Strategy of Resource Saving and the Transition to the
Market, The Market and Socioeconomic Development, and especially his new
book, On the Doorstep of the 21st Century, as well as his speeches at
various forums.' Just as important as sources for the present study are the
books by President Yeltsin of Russia: Confessions on a Given Theme, Memoirs
of a President as well as his official speeches, and also the works of
other Russian politicians and public figures, which afford a deeper grasp
of the essence of events happening in the post-Soviet space in the 1990s.
The process of market reform in the republic and the tendencies and
prospects for further reform in the socioeconomic sphere are reflected in
several books by Kazakhstan's Prime Minister A.M.Kazhegeldin: The
Socioeconomic Problems of Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan in
Times of Reform, Kazakhstan in Times of Reform, Problems of State
Regulation Under the Conditions of Socioeconomic Transformation.
The formation of the republic's diplomatic service and problems of its
civilized entry in the world community are studied in the works of
K.K.Tokayev, Kazakhstan's foreign minister.
Intense legislative processes at all levels in the given period
necessitated close attention to the legal basis of the newly independent
states. As far as Kazakhstan is concerned, that legal basis includes above
all the Constitutions of 1993 and 1995, of which the content and the
sociopolitical background may be seen as the quintessence of the given
period in the country's history.
The main distinctive feature of the source base of the study is the
fact that most documents of the given period of political history have not
yet been moved to the archives; it was therefore necessary to turn on many
occasions to various central and departmental current archives. The
identification and systematization of many sources, their publication in a
collection of materials devoted to the development of Kazakhstani-Russian
relations was in themselves an important task.
It may thus be said that extensive sources have been used in the analysis
of the above-mentioned problems; their study made it possible to paint a
comprehensive picture of the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations
against the background of the sovereignty of Kazakhstan in 1991-1995.
1.THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE
In a context of events, which have taken place in region after
September 11, the role of Russia in Central Asia a little has varied, as
well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years.
In these conditions of one of important external policies of tasks of
Kazakhstan is the adjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia,
which would correspond by modern geopolitical realities and long-term
interests of our country.
Central Asia and Caspian Sea, so-called recently Caspian – Central
Asia region, go into an region of traditional interests of Russia.
In this region it always had the important national interests, which,
however, in different periods were defined by different circumstances and
The key interests of Russia in this region at the present stage can be
reduced to the following.
Central Asia has the important value in of a safety of Russia.
The importance of this region for Russia is stipulated not oil by the
factor implying from desire to save influence on Caspian Sea;
Our region is of interest for Russia territorial, where its
compatriots live. Are those, on our sight three dominating interest of
Russian Federation, dominating, Caspian – Central Asia region at the
present stage. It in this region has also other interests trade, cosmotron
of “Baikonur”, industrial communications etc. but they now in basic carry
not so priority character.
Until recently Russia ensured above-mentioned interests without the
special efforts. All countries of region in the majority were that or are
otherwise dependent on Russian Federation.But the events, which have
occurred after September of the last year, have brought in serious enough
variations to a geopolitical situation in Central Asia and have affected on
common position of forces in region.
One of the occurred key variations consists that the break in sphere
of traditional vital interests of Russia is watched which today faces to
necessity Central Asia of policy.
As a whole by 2001 in Central Asia the private tripartite balance
between interests of Russia, China, USA was folded.
The given balance can figuratively be presented as a triangle, in
which upper corner Russia, in one lower corner - USA, in the friend - China
settled down. These countries have occupied three strategic niches in
Caspian – Central Asia region: military-political, oil and gas, commodity-
The Russian presence at region last years was ensured, first of all,
with strategic military-political component. A peaking of a problem
extremism and the terrorisms in Central Asia, activation Islamic of driving
of Uzbekistan, irreconcilable part of Integrated Tadjik opposition at
immediate support Talib have established in 1999 - 2001 real threat for the
countries of region.
In these conditions only Russia was considered by the states of region
as the real factor and safety. It is enough to recollect, that these years
the contacts through link DKNB, intensive two-sided ratios in military and